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介孔納米材料未來可期! Promising Future of Mesoporous Nano Materials

瀏覽:44 發布日期:2020-07-16

 

韓國科學技術院在《自然》雜志有發表關于介孔納米材料的綜述,講述了介孔納米材料的誕生以及近三十年來的里程碑式的發展,對從事該領域的人員大有幫助。其實,介孔納米材料的發展大致分為以下三個時期:

The Korean Academy of Science and Technology has published a review on mesoporous nanomaterials in the journal Nature, describing the birth of mesoporous nanomaterials and the landmark development in the past 30 years, which is of great help to those engaged in this field. In fact, the development of mesoporous nanomaterials can be divided into the following three periods.


 

第一,介孔納米材料是從研究沸石(zeolites)誕生。1992年,kresge團隊報道了一種模板法,利用該方法制備出了組裝有序的介孔分子篩,該分子篩含有均勻、排列規則的孔徑(2-50 nm)。后來利用膠束為模板,制備了蜂窩狀的具有納米級孔徑的結構高度有序的介孔材料MCM-41

First, mesoporous nanomaterials were born from the study of zeolites. In 1992, Kresge team reported a template method to prepare ordered mesoporous molecular sieves with uniform and regular pore size (2-50 nm). Later, MCM-41, a highly ordered mesoporous material with nano pore size, was prepared by using micelles as templates.


 

第二,關鍵性的進展即開發了軟模板法。在1998年,美國加州大學的Gallen D. Stucky團隊報道了他們利用聚合物表面活性劑策略,將高度有序的孔徑增加到了30 nm,該材料被命名為SBA-15。SBA-15不僅具有更大的孔徑,而且還有更厚的孔壁、更高的孔容和水熱穩定性,已經成為介孔材料中的一種經典材料。

Second, the key progress is the development of soft template method. In 1998, Gallen D. Stucky of the University of California reported that they used the polymer surfactant strategy to increase the highly ordered pore size to 30 nm, which was named SBA-15. SBA-15 has not only larger pore size, but also thicker pore wall, higher pore volume and hydrothermal stability, which has become a classic mesoporous material.


 

第三,另外一個突破性進展即硬模板法的問世。在1999年,Shinae Jun團隊報道了硬模板法,利用另外一種固體介孔材料作為模板與前驅體分子共同制備了介孔材料,其方式有些類似于澆鑄混凝土管轉。該方法有兩個必須要求:(1)前驅體必須均勻的滲透到模板的孔中,不能聚集在外表面上;(2)前驅體必須完全轉化為所需的產品。

Third, another breakthrough is the hard template method. In 1999, shinae Jun team reported the hard template method, using another kind of solid mesoporous material as template and precursor molecules to prepare mesoporous materials, which is similar to casting concrete pipe. There are two requirements in this method: (1) the precursor must penetrate into the pores of the template evenly, and cannot gather on the outer surface (2) The precursor must be completely transformed into the desired product.


 

綜上所述,從最開始的沸石研究到后來的軟模板法和硬模板法,介孔納米材料逐漸被人們所了解和關注。如今,介孔納米材料被廣泛的研究和應用,從最開始的石油化工、催化領域,到現在的生物醫學領域。其中,最為代表的就是介孔二氧化硅材料,通過不同的合成方法可以制備出各種所需的性狀和尺寸,同時其具有良好的生物相容性,也可在人體組織中自降解,因而非常適用于作為藥物、基因等載體。

In conclusion, from the initial study of zeolite to the soft template method and hard template method, mesoporous nanomaterials have been gradually understood and concerned. Nowadays, mesoporous nanomaterials have been widely studied and applied, from the first petrochemical, catalytic fields to biomedical fields. Among them, the most representative is mesoporous silica materials. Through different synthesis methods, various required properties and sizes can be prepared. At the same time, they have good biocompatibility and can also be self degraded in human tissues, so it is very suitable for drug, gene and other carriers.


 

來源:高分子科學前沿

Source: Polymer Science Frontier

 

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